Frequently Asked Questions

 

QUESTIONS  
1. How do I make comparatives out of adverbs?  
2. What's the difference between each and either?  
3. How do I use the adverbs of degree?  

 

1. COMPARATIVE FORMS OF ADVERBS

In general, comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for adjectives:

  • add -er or -est to short adverbs:

Adverb Comparative Superlative

hard
late
fast

harder
later
faster

the hardest
the latest
the fastest

Example:

  • Jim works harder than his brother.
  • Everyone in the race ran fast, but John ran the fastest of all.

with adverbs ending in -ly, use more for the comparative and most for the superlative:

Adverb Comparative Superlative

quietly
slowly
seriously

more quietly
more slowly
more seriously

most quietly
most slowly
most seriously

Example:

  • The teacher spoke more slowly to help us to understand.
  • Could you sing more quietly please?

Some adverbs have irregular comparative forms:

Adverb Comparative Superlative
badly
far
little
well
worse
farther/further
less
better
worst
farthest/furthest
least
best
Example:
  • The little boy ran further than his friends.
  • You're driving worse today than yesterday !

BE CAREFUL! Sometimes 'most' can mean 'very':

  • We were most grateful for your help
  • I am most impressed by this application.

2. EACH, EVERY, EITHER, NEITHER

These distributive words are normally used with singular nouns, and are placed before the noun.

Each, either and neither can be used with plural nouns but must be followed by 'of':

Each is a way of seeing the members of a group as individuals:

  • Each child received a present.
  • Each of the children received a present.

Every is a way of seeing a group as a series of members:

  • Every child in the world deserves affection.

It can also express different points in a series, especially with time expressions:

  • Every third morning John goes jogging.
  • This magazine is published every other week.

Either and Neither are concerned with distribution between two things - either is positive, neither is negative:

  • Which chair do you want? Either chair will do.
  • I can stay at either hotel, they are both good
  • There are two chairs here. You can take either of them.
  • Neither chair is any good, they're both too small.
  • Which chair do you want? Neither of them - they're both too small.

 

3. ADVERBS OF DEGREE

Adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, an adjective or another adverb.

Common adverbs of degree:

Almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely.

Adverbs of degree are usually placed:

  1. before the adjective or adverb they are modifying:
    e.g. The water was extremely cold.
  2. before the main verb:
    e.g. He was just leaving. She has almost finished.

Examples:

  • She doesn't quite know what she'll do after university.
  • They are completely exhausted from the trip.
  • I am too tired to go out tonight.
  • He hardly noticed what she was saying.

Enough, very, too

Enough as an adverb meaning 'to the necessary degree' goes after adjectives and adverbs.

Example:

  • Is your coffee hot enough? (adjective)
  • He didn't work hard enough. (adverb)

It also goes before nouns, and means 'as much as is necessary'. In this case it is not an adverb, but a 'determiner'.

Example:

  • We have enough bread.
  • They don't have enough food.

Too as an adverb meaning 'more than is necessary or useful' goes before adjectives and adverbs, e.g.

  • This coffee is too hot. (adjective)
  • He works too hard. (adverb)

Enough and too with adjectives can be followed by 'for someone/something'.

Example:

  • The dress was big enough for me.
  • She's not experienced enough for this job.
  • The coffee was too hot for me.
  • The dress was too small for her.

We can also use 'to + infinitive' after enough and too with adjectives/adverb.

Example:

  • The coffee was too hot to drink.
  • He didn't work hard enough to pass the exam.
  • She's not old enough to get married.
  • You're too young to have grandchildren!

Very goes before an adverb or adjective to make it stronger.

Example:

  • The girl was very beautiful. (adjective)
  • He worked very quickly. (adverb)

If we want to make a negative form of an adjective or adverb, we can use a word of opposite meaning, or not very.

Example:

  • The girl was ugly OR The girl was not very beautiful
  • He worked slowly OR He didn't work very quickly.

BE CAREFUL! There is a big difference between too and very.

  • Very expresses a fact:
    He speaks very quickly.
  • Too suggests there is a problem:
    He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).

Other adverbs like very

These common adverbs are used like very and not very, and are listed in order of strength, from positive to negative:

extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather, not especially, not particularly.

Note: rather can be positive or negative, depending on the adjective or adverb that follows:

Positive: The teacher was rather nice.
Negative: The film was rather disappointing.

Note on inversion with negative adverbs:

Normally the subject goes before the verb:

SUBJECT VERB

I
She

left
goes

However, some negative adverbs can cause an inversion - the order is reversed and the verb goes before the subject

Example:

I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage.

She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house.

Negative inversion is used in writing, not in speaking.

Other adverbs and adverbial expressions that can be used like this:

seldom, scarcely, hardly, not only .....
but also, no sooner .....
than, not until, under no circumstances.

 

 

 

 

 

This website has been designed and is maintained by Alfonso Hinojosa, teacher of English at E.O.I. Santander